Information on this website is not updated. Please visit our new website

Julian Zachariewicz

Rector of Lviv Polytechnic in 1877/78 and 1881/82.
At the end of 1872 completed the draft of Lviv Polytechnic University main building, which was erected in 1877.

Julian Zachariewicz is a person who at the request of the time appeared in the world and became a symbol of the whole era – age of awakening, engineering, innovative ideas and inventions, the era of rapid education development. This person's talent and versatility are hardly imaginable. Director of Railways, the Rector, architect, artist, renovator, author of numerous articles and research – it's all about Julian Zachariewicz who was twice elected as the Rector of Lviv Polytechnic University and author of its main building.

Julian Zachariewicz was born in Lviv July 17, 1837. The environment of contemporary city, rich in history and examples of different cultures influenced a lot his development and career choices. After high school he entered the Technical Academy in Lviv, where architecture and free hand drawing were taught at the technical department. Education obtained in Lviv became the basis for further study at the Polytechnic Institute in Vienna. For future architect that moving was crucial to the formation of his world.

Yulian Octavian Zakhariyevych was born in Lviv on 17th July, 1837. Environment contemporary city, rich in history and examples of interaction between different cultures greatly influenced on his becoming and career choices. After high school he joined the Technical Academy in Lviv, where at the technical department were such subjects as architecture and free hand drawing. Education in Ukraine became the basis for further studies at the Polytechnic Institute in Vienna. This removal of future architect was decisive to the formation of his worldview.

After graduation, in February 1858, Yulian Zakhariyevych was working with the General Directorate of state railways construction in Vienna. However, in 1859, to improve his knowledge of architecture, took part in the construction of the Vienna St. Stephen led by Ernst [1]. Subsequently, until 1870 became director at Karl-Ludwig Railroad (line Vienna, Krakow, Chernivtsi-Yasy).

In 1871 Yulian Zakhariyevych was suggested to became the head of the department of architecture at the Technical Academy in Lviv. He accepted the invitation and in the same year obtained a professor of architecture degree. These events have become prominent in the life of an artist because since then all of his life ties together with future Lviv Polytechnic [2].

Architectural heritage

In April 1872 through the efforts of the guidance of the Technical Academy and the public, Emperor Franz Joseph I gave permission and funds (1 mln. 300 thousand. Golden guldens) for the construction of new premises for the Academy. Design was entrusted to 35-year-old professor - Yulian Zakhariyevych. After receiving the order, Yulian Zahariyevych makes a study trip to Europe. Studies functional solutions and architectural decoration of Polytechnics in Vienna and Munich. In late 1872 he completed project by which three-storeyed main building and a building of chemical laboratory should’ve been performed.

The main building of the Polytechnic. Archive photo, 1894.

The main building of the Polytechnic. Archive photo, 1894. [3/p.26].

The main building is constructed in the popular in European architecture - historic style of the Italian Renaissance. Didn’t passed unnoticed the training of Yulian Zakhariyevych in Vienna. This is evidenced by the similarity facades of Vienna and Lviv Polytechnics. However, three-dimensional solutions of the buildings are radically different.

The construction was organized and executed quickly. Completion of the main building in October 1877 brought the architect recognition and fame. Noting the contribution Yulian Zakhariyevych in construction, professors Board elects him as the Rector of the Polytechnic School (so was named the former Technical Academy) [3].

Along with the Polytechnic at the synagogue building in Chernivtsi (1873-1878) master used the opportunities of Moorish style to distinguish it from Christian shrines radically. Simultaneously working on a project of Monastery and Church of Franciscans in Ukraine (1876-1888) architect refers to neo-roman forms and free interpretation of Gothic. Romanesque Revival architecture was common in the sacred architecture of that time and sometimes associated with the establishment of monastic orders, indicated their asceticism and humility. Generally Neo-Roman positions in his work by the late 70's are amplified. These trends are reflected in the lower sacral buildings - churches in Zarichya near Yaroslav (about 1880) and Butsnev near Ternopil (about 1887). Professor skillfully applies materials such as good-quality bricks of different colors, ceramics (majolica) insertion, Romanesque decorative ornaments, often combined with Gothic completion. Interesting neo-gothic experiments of the master embodied in the villa of painter Jan Joints (1889), which was rare in housing construction of that time. Villa of Zakhariyevych "Yuliyetka" built in 1891-1893 also allocated - free artistic formation, innovative distribution facilities, picturesque view of the walls of colored bricks [1].

The last major and successful work of Yulian Zakhariyevych was constructing the Galician Savings Bank in Lviv (1889-1891). Despite the results of the competition, which preceded the structure, the order for the project was suggested to Yulian Zakhariyevych. The building stands out late-romantic interpretation of Neo-Renaissance motifs with visible signs of early modernism. Very widely used textural properties and color of materials - not plastered polychrome brick, hewn stone, majolica reliefs and and a lot of forged gratings. At the turn of 1880-90's, this building was the harbinger of a new interpretation of architecture - the style of secesion – direction that was successfully developed in Ukraine companions and disciples of Yulian Zakhariyevych: I. Levynskyi, T. Obminskyi and A. Zakhariyevych - son of Professor [1].

Artistic heritage

His architecture buildings Yulian Zakhariyevych actively sated with forged and cast metal, plastic sculpture, stucco ornaments, paintings, stained glass, ceramic parts, fine joinery.

The name of Yulian Zakhariyevych is connected with the formation of Lviv Designing school in the late XIX century.

While designing the main building of the Polytechnic, Yulian Zakhariyevych also designed the building interiors. Two beautiful lanterns and lights at the entrance to the main staircase impress with their artistic perfection. Yulian Zakhariyevych is the author of design-solution and interior of polytechnic library, which is housed on the second floor of the main building. Its rich decoration enraptured even today. Former library is hall decorated with oak panels, wooden ceiling with simulated intarsia ornamentation and large carved library wardrobe all along the walls, in the style of the Flemish Renaissance. The design of the cabinet master decided rather unusual , proecting it in two floors, but one extent, ensuring optimum for a large amount of books. Spiral staircases on both sides mounted in the cabinet and leading to the mezzanine [4].

Causes interest and admiration also the organization of internal space of private houses of Yan Styk’s villa and Zakhariyevych’s private villa. The interiors are decorated with wooden carvings, lace with gothic motifs on the ceiling and a collection of Gothic ceramics, which master so admired.

Yulian Zakhariyevych was enthusiast of ceramic industry revival − creating a ceramic research station and pottery school in Polytechnic (1886) and tiles factories in Glinsk founder. For example, moneybox-vase, plate and vase with pokuttya-stylized ornamentation that exhibited at the Paris World Exhibition in 1900. Vases, tiles, facingl tiles, made in 1891-1894 on n sketches of Zakhariyevych are believed to be the best in secession style works [5].

Artistic talent of Yulian Zahariyevych combined with the skill of the blacksmith Ivan Dashek manifested in the decoration of the Galician Savings Bank. For this building was made a huge amount of bending and plumbing work, namely, window guards on first floor, doors and round metal roseta over them, balconies framing, gilded lattice in the conference hall etc. Especially fantastic look have forged blossomed flowers , created by drawings of Yulian Zakhariyevych. Also, by master drawings are made metal lattice ladders and two lights of Ossolinski Palace (now the Scientific Library of NAS of Ukraine) [4].

Research activity

It is symbolic that with this construction of the main building, namely directly room, environment for creating architectural education, personal example of the architect – practitioner, who professionally applied acquired knowledge, began a career of Professor Yulian Zakhariyevych already as the founder of Lviv school of architecture. His subsequent creative, educational, scientific and theoretical work was just a confirmation of what was said. At the opening and dedication of new buildings Yulian Zakhariyevych demonstrated his theoretic talent, speaking with a solemn lecture "Art in the service of technology" .Earlier in the spring of 1877 the world saw the publication of his work "Review of architecture", which is dedicated to theoretical reflection on the history of architecture, the definition of style, the influence of religion and social changes on the architecture, the role of material, constructions and preferances of an era in its formation. This treatise is the first theoretical and architectural work of Professor and the first of its kind in Galicia.

Yulian Zakhariyevych died on 27th December, 1898. He was buried at the Lychakiv cemetery in Lviv. On his tomb there is a tombstone that he, for a dozen years before his death, designed himself from sandstone in neo-Renaissance style.

Honoring the memory of founder and rector of the Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv leading architect Yulian Zakhariyevych in niche lobby of the main building in 1910 at the expense of grateful polytechnics were established his marble bust. This tradition has been maintained to this day − in 2002 for polytechnics donations was restored monument on the grave of Yulian Zahariyevych at the Lychakiv cemetery[1].